Database Search

You are in the database section of the website.

Select a record category from RECORDS above. When you have selected a category, you will see search options for that category above the record list. 

Most fields require at least three characters. When you submit your query, the search engine will return all records that contain your search term.

Note that when searching for an aircraft serial number, you must enter the full serial number without the leading "4" and without a dash in the Aircraft SN search field. For example, you would enter 42-37772 as 237772.

The Personnel name field searches both last and first names, so if you enter the search term, "Russ", the search engine will return both Russell Abel and James Russell.

You narrow the search by entering more characters into the search field. For example, "Russ" returns many hits. "Russell" returns fewer hits. The same principle applies to all queries.

The POW and KIA categories are list only and are not searchable.

CAPT  Frank D. MURPHY

UNIT: 418th BOMB Sqdn POSITION: NAV

Frank D. Murphy, Original 100th Navigator. Photograph taken at Wendover Field, Utah December 1942. Detailed Information (100th Photo Archives)

Frank D. Murphy, Original 100th Navigator. Photograph taken at Wendover Field, Utah December 1942. ( Courtesy of Chole Melas and Frank Murphy Family)

SERIAL #: O-790276 STATUS: POW
MACR: 01028 CR: 01028

Comments1: 10 OCT 43 MUNSTER (ATLANTA, GA) (EAC - EXP )

COMMENTS & NOTES

MEMO 1:

CREW  

     Original Crew #31           418th Sqdn.    M.A.C.R. #1028

Mission:Munster
Aircraft #42-30725
Date: 10 Oct.1943
Time: 1500/1530 "AW-R-GO"
A/C last seen: Munster
Cause:EAC

Crew aboard:
 Charles B.Cruikshank Capt.    P POW
 Glenn E.Graham 1st Lt.      CP POW
 Frank D.Murphy Capt.      NAV POW
 August H.Gaspar 1st Lt.   BOM POW
 Orlando E.Vincenti T/Sgt  ROG KIA
 Leonard R.Weeks T/Sgt.   TTE POW
 Robert L.Bixler S/Sgt.       BTG POW
 James M.Johnson S/Sgt.    WG POW
 Donald B.Garrison S/Sgt.     WG POW
 Charles A.Clark Sgt.             TG KIA

Crew on 21st mission. Weeks said that Vincenti bailed out of bomb-bay with chute afire. Had been fighting fire in radio room.

Garrison saw both James Johnson & Robert Bixler wounded and in waist of plane. Plane blew up and Garrison blown out. Ship had dropped bombs on target.

Weeks said; "Germans said Vincenti's chute had burned in the descent and that he was dead before hitting the ground. Bixler said Germans had shown him Vincenti's dog tags and told him that he was dead."

Johnson said he was blown out of ship and his chute opened at about 5,000 ft.

Clark couldn't seem to get his escape hatch open and was probably killed when plane blow up.

Fighter attack caused fire in ship.

German Records show :Sgt. Charles A. Cark interred on 11 Oct 1943 at Lienen Cemetary/Wesph. Northwestern
third of cemetary, southern grave.  O.E.Vincenti northern grave

(probably severely burned since Id tsg was found badly damaged by fire) Mrs.Agnes Clark 603 Laurel Ave. Highland Park,Ill.

Subj: Re: Follow-up on the 9 questions  
Date: 3/3/2005 
From: FrDMurphy 
To: MPFaley 

Mike, (Faley, 100th BG Historian and Photo Archives)

I have talked to Charlie Cruikshank a lot lately.  He feels, as do I, that what essentially did us in at Munster on 10 October 1943 was the lead airplane, Brady and Egan, getting knocked out on the bomb run.  We were the deputy lead and followed John down as he sank for perhaps as long as 10-15 seconds not knowing how badly he was hit, even though he was streaming smoke and fluids.  We then pulled up and continued the bomb run but all this, I feel, disrupted the integrity of the 100 BG formation and gave the swarms of Luftwaffe fighters buzzing like bees all around us the opening to take us on individually.  You know the rest of the story. Take care, Mike,

Frank Murphy, Navigator


Letter to Harry H. Crosby, the 100th's Group Navigator, from Frank Murphy dated 10 Jan 1995

January 10. 1995

Dear Harry,

Thanks so much for your letter of 30 December to me and others. It's great to hear how well your book is doing. I still want to buy a copy of the Chinese edition as I have never had my picture in a Chinese book before 

I also appreciate the copies of the material on the "wheels down" story from Martin Middlebrooks' book. It so happens that about ten years ago during one of my many overnight stopovers in London I went into Hatchard's, a book store on Picadilly that I loved to browse through, and saw this book so I bought it.

Although I don't know whether it is true, it is my impression that the "wheels down" story and the vendetta the Luftwaffe was supposed to have against the 100th as a result thereof was much talked about in England during the war. Is that true? I never heard the story in Stalag Luft III. It was, as I have said, about ten years after the war that I first heard it from ex-Eighth AF'ers with whom I was dealing when I worked for Lockheed It always absolutely infuriated me.

The actual "wheels down" part of the story, even before I read the detailed Middlebrooks explanation, was always rather plausible. What was perfectly ridiculous to me from the beginning is the idea that thereafter the Luftwaffe would chase all over European skies trying to find the 100th. Nowhere does the actual record support such a conclusion. Yet, the story still persists.

Ann and I went on the 50th Anniversary of D-Day cruise last June with the Eighth Air Force Historical Society group. At one point I mentioned to a former 390th pilot that I was in the 100th. He said, "The 100th was the best fighter escort I ever had, when you were around the Germans left us alone." I told him, "You weren't in the same war I was in. I was a POW with 7000 officer prisoners from every bomber and fighter group in England, Italy and Africa and there were as many 390th POWs there as there were lOOth."

I spoke directly with Roger Freeman about this and he said that the notion of the German vendetta is "laughable."

As you perhaps know, I spent two days, 26-27 October 1991, in Munich with the late Gerd Wiegand, who I met through Ian Hawkins. Gerd was an FW-l90 pilot with 4./KG 26 (Staffel 4 of II Gruppe of Jagdgeschwader 26) at Lille/Nord from 1942  to 1944. He was credited with 30 victories, including 7 B-17s. He told me he replaced Wilhelm-Ferdinand Galland, brother of Adolf Galland, in KG/26. Gerd was extremely hospitable. He was one of the principal architects on the Munich Olympic facilities and his name is one of four on a plaque in the Olympic Tower there. He passed through Atlanta about a year later and we visited again. He signed his letters to me, "Your fighter friend." I wrote him as "Your bomber friend."

Gerd kept a meticulous daily diary of his combat activities during the war, complete with sketches of his dogfights, and produced it as we sat and talked in his lovely apartment. His diary entry for the Munster raid on October 10, 1943 was exactly as I remember it all beginning. He shot down a 95th BG airplane that day.

From the middle of 1942 the Germans had a series of overlapping early warning radar installations in a sickle-shaped pattern on the channel coast from France to the North Sea. Their radar sets could determine height, range and bearing on aircraft up to 150 miles away. The Germans were well aware of all of our air activity over Britain every time we flew a mission. When we entered the continent their ground control stations used tracking radar to plot the paths of our aircraft and vector fighter interceptors into the bomber stream utilizing UHF radio communications. Gerd said they had a few "hot dogs" but German fighter units were generally well disciplined. Moreover, the range of their fighter aircraft was too limited to permit them to go wherever they pleased.

Gerd told me the numbers, letters and other markings on our aircraft meant absolutely nothing to them. Could anyone, particularly an Eighth AF air crew member who saw any action at all, seriously believe otherwise!

Margaret Blakely called today about Bucky Elton to see if I had any details on his death. I only know that it apparently happened suddenly -- mercifully. He was a neat little guy. Is anyone doing anything about the memorial to the 100th at Savannah for which Bucky gave $5000? If it is a viable project I will try to also make a contribution. Somehow, it seems to disappeared from the scope

All the best as always, Harry


Mission Log of Frank D. Murphy
Date   Target
26 Jun 1943  LeMans, France
28 Jun 1943  St. Nazaire, France
29 Jun 1943  LeMans, France
04 Jul 1943  La Pallice, France
17 Jul 1943  Hamburg, Germany
24 Jul 1943  Trondheim, Germany
26 Jul 1943  Hanover, Germany
29 Jul 1943  Warnemunde, Germany
30 Jul 1943  Kassel, Germany (with Lt John Brady Crew)
15 Aug 1943  Merville/ Lille, France
17 Aug 1943  Regensburg, Germany
27 Aug 1943  Watten, France
31 Aug 1943  Meulan, France
07 Sep 1943  Watten, France
21 Sep 1943  Beauville/ Tille, France
23 Sep 1943  Vannes/ Meucon, France
26 Sep 1943  Paris, France
02 Oct 1943  Emden, Germany
04 Oct 1043  Hanau, Germany
09 Oct 1943  Marienburg, Germany
10 Oct 1943  Munster, Germany   

(Posted by Frank Murphy on 5/18/2002, 1:04 pm ,
 in reply to "Re: Neil B. "Chick" Harding"152.163.206.179 
                                                                        
 Dear Bucky Frame, 
I was the navigator on Crew 31 of the original 100th Bomb Group and went to England in June 1943. 
Col.Harding led the 100th BG to Marienburg in East Prussia on October 9, 1943. The bombing results at Marienburg were
 said to have been the best of the war. I was Col. Harding's lead navigator on his airplane that day. He was a fine man and a
 great leader. All the best, Frank Murphy 


10 Oct 1943  Munster, Germany

Dear Mr. Frauenheim,

Following is a message from Paul Andrews, the young historian in Washington, DC who assisted me with my book. I think it will be of interest to you. After many years of searching records we have learned that the Luftwaffe pilot who shot my airplane down on 10/10/43 was Oblt. Heinrich Kloppers of 7./JG 1. Oblt. Kloppers was clearly a brilliant pilot and had a very impressive record of 94 victories before he himself was lost in an air battle with an American P-38 on November 29, 1943.

Sincerely,

Frank Murphy

Paul Andrews,

What follows is a translation of the entry for Heinrich Klöpper in Ernst
Obermaier, Die Ritterkreuzträger der Luftwaffe, Bd. I:  Jagdflieger , 2nd
ed. (Mainz, West Germany:  Verlag Dieter Hoffmann, 1989), p. 148:

Born:   9 January 1918 in Groß-Bülten/Kreis Peine/Hannover.
Died:   29 November 1943 over the Zuider-Zee/Holland.
Deutsches Kreuz in Gold:  7 September 1942
Ehrenpokal:  20 October 1941
Ritterkreuz:  4 September 1942 as an Oberfeldwebel

From the beginning of 1940 he belonged to 2./JG 77 (later 11./JG 51).  On 15
May 1940 he had to bale out after an unconfirmed victory over a French
Morane[MS.406, trans.] and was badly injured.  In the fall of 1940 he returned to
his Staffel and on 5 October 1940 gained his first aerial victory, a
Spitfire. After transfer to the East Front, he soon belonged to the best
fighter pilots in his Gruppe and by the end of 1941 had gained 26 aerial
victories.  After a long interval as an instructor fighter pilot, at the end
of May 1942 he began his "success series" (for example, 5 victories on 7
July 1942 and on 4 August 1942, 25 alone in the month of August 1942) and for 67
victories was decorated with the Ritterkreuz.  Again at the front at the end
of October 1942, he raised this number to 82 by mid-November 1942, among
which he again counted 5 victories on 9 November.  Additionally, by this
time he had during 485 combat sories destroyed four locomotives, two tanks, 1
recce vehicle, 3 anti-tank guns, and four artillery pieces.

On 27 March 1943 he took over the 7./JG 51 in Reichs air defense [
Reichsverteidigung], having meanwhile been promoted to an officer.  From
this point on, he fought as an acknowledged Experte against Anglo-American
bombers until on 29 November 1943 he met his fate.  After a tough dogfight with P-38
Lightnings, during which he shot down one of his opponents, he dove at high
speed out of a low cloud bank, could not recover, and impacted with his
aircraft on the western edge of the Zuider-Zee, being killed in the crash
(Bf
109G-6 WNr. 410 106, we. 1 + ).

Over 500 combat sorties.
94 aerial victories, of which 13 in the West, 8 four-engined bombers.

Have fun trying to figure out what unit of "P-38s" Klöpper may have engaged
when he was killed.  I did a quick look at Olynyk's list for this date and
found only 359th FG (P-47s) credits over Meppel, Holland, as possible
candidates.  Where the P-38s may have come in I haven't the foggiest.
Prien/Rodeike say the '38s were from 55th FG and the combat was at 14.00 hr.
. . .
Anything else, good sir?

Tschuß!
RA

MUNSTER RECOLLECTIONS BY FRANK D. MURPHY

Subj: Re: Munster movie  
Date: 12/28/2004 1:19:48 PM Pacific Standard Time 
From: FrDMurphy 
To: charlie@100thbg.com 
CC: MPFaley, pandrews@dodig.osd.mil 
 
Hi Charlie,

Thanks for the clear instructions.  The Munster movie is great!  The simulation of all the airplanes and their markings is terrific as are the battle scenes.  As a veteran of that mission I thank maxwellsmart for his generous tribute to the aircrews of the 13 CW.

There are a couple of points that I would mention that are in no way intended to disparage the movie.  As Mike pointed out we had no factory-built G models or stripes on our wings, they came later.  The attacks on the 100th BG (our crew was deputy lead just behind Egan and Brady and when they were taken out on the bomb run we took over the lead) were virtually all head-on.  The Germans ran out ahead of us in trail on both sides about a thousand yards and slightly above us, then alternated winging over in pairs, pair after pair from both sides, and flying straight into our formation with all guns blazing.  As I have said I counted over seventy fighters racing out ahed of us before the first attacks came.  Attacks were nonstop and determined.  Some Germans rolled over and did a last second Split-S diving away, others flew through our formation.  I was very sure several times that we were going to have a head-on collision and turned my head away in horror and fright.

The leading edges of the Bf 109 and Fw 190 a/c lit up like they were on fire as the machine guns and cannons were fired. This was not simulated in the film.

The twin-engine Me 110s did not mix it up with us as indicated--they didn't have the speed as they were "destroyer" squadrons laden with heavy tubular rocket launchers under their wings.  There tactic was to stand off beyond the range of our guns, usually to our rear, and lob 90 lb. time-fused rockets into our midst to break up our formations so their fighters could take us out individually, which is essentially what happened to the 100th.  It was a horrendous explosion from a rocket right before our eyes immediately ahead of us that took out Brady/Egan and did disrupt our formation.  Before that the small 100th was in as good order on the bomb run as any other group in the task force.

The groups of the 13th CW were very widely spaced in the target area as we made individual bomb runs.  Individual German staffeln could not attack more than one groups at a time.

Munster was, and is, a much larger city than depicted in the film.

The 13th CW was operating from 23-25,000 feet during this battle, significantly higher than the film would suggest.

But, don't get me wrong, I liked and deeply appreciate the film.  I agree, it is a "must see."

Best regards,

Frank Murphy


ALSO CHECK DOCUMENT IN AIRMAN FILE ENTITLED "FRANK MURPHY WE WERE LIBERATED"

Captain Frank Murphy, also of the 100th Bomb Group, was a PoW at Stalag Luft III, Sagan expressed the American veterans' viewpoint following the contemptible "politically correct" protests by the 'aftershave-and-nose-ring-brigade' and by the British media before, during and after the unveiling of a statue to the late Sir Arthur "Bomber" Harris by the late Queen Mother in May 1992:  "How quickly the truth is forgotten! The conventional wisdom now, which I heard repeated on American television recently, is that strategic bombing in the Second World War had very little effect on the outcome of the war. I, truly, would never have believed that the Royal Air Force, who alone carried the fight to the Germans  for so long, would be the subject of criticism in their own country.
    "I also cannot believe that no Campaign Medal has been created for the veterans of RAF Bomber Command in the Second World War. I was privileged to have been a PoW  with a large number of these brave men in Stalag Luft III. They unhesitatingly did everything asked of them; their country owes them an everlasting debt of gratitude.
    "There are a couple of problems. First, the majority of the British and American public today cannot possibly comprehend what it was like to, literally, fight for survival. Second, anti-war activists love nothing better than to overlay historical fact with their pious moralisms.
    "During the long winter nights in Sagan of 1943-44 and 1944-45 nothing lifted the spirits of the Allied prisoners in Stalag Luft III more than the distant "thump… thump… thump" of "blockbuster" bombs from RAF bombers falling on Berlin, some 90 miles to the northwest.  The same words were coming from all lips: "Give it to them". 
    "I remember it all very well."


 REGENSBURG RECOLLECTIONS BY CAPT. FRANK MURPHY
NAVIGATOR ON LT CHARLES CRUIKSHANK CREW… (Dec 4, 2003)

 MPFaley:  were you contacted by a gentleman about those zanny hats you wore back from Regensburg mission 
 FrDMurphy:  No.   I haven't heard from anyone about those weird hats. 
 MPFaley:  you will 
 FrDMurphy:  What happened was that in Marrakech we ran into some Senalgelese soldiers wearing those hats and we swapped ours for theirs.  The hat I brought back to England is now in the museum at Thorpe Abbotts. 
 FrDMurphy:  Yes.  My hat is at Thorpe Abbotts. 
 FrDMurphy:  The dagger that you see in my waist belt in the photo is also at Thorpe Abbotts.  We bought them from street vendors in Africa. 
 MPFaley:  Damn you did some trading over there 
 FrDMurphy:  We were on our way back to England via the ATC (Air Transport Command) and overnighted at the Moumonia Hotel in Marrakeck--Winston Churchhill's favorite hotel.  Our airplane was too badly damaged to fly back to the UK.  And, yes, we did a lot of haggling with the thieves in Marrakech. 
 MPFaley:  you youngsters took them for everything they had or was it the other way around 
 FrDMurphy:  I think they came out better.  That was a way of life with them, but we got what we wanted and it broke the tension we were experiencing after a very difficult mission.  It was a very tough day for the group at Regensburg.  You know the details.  
 MPFaley:  That was such a tough mission and you had to see so much from where you were in the formation 
 MPFaley:  what did the 350th look like out your window, had to be brutal on the first pass 
 MPFaley:  were you at the side gun in nose  
 MPFaley:  how much time did you have to react to fighters coming in and going from your Nav position too that gun.  
 FrDMurphy:  The Regensburg mission was unbelievable.  To be under attack by hordes of German fighters for ten minutes was a lifetime.  We took all they had for an hour at Regensburg.  It was an eternity.  I truly did not think any of us would survive.  The 100th was the last group in the wing and low.  They came at us from above, below and head on and from the rear.  I could only see to each side and from in front but they never stopped coming.  We ran out of ammo in the nose and I took off my oxygen mask and we 
 FrDMurphy:  I dragged two boxes of ammo from the radio room through the bomb bay back to the nose==WITH NO OXYGEN---adrenalin will work miracles. 
 MPFaley:  Man, that is a LONG way without OXY 
 MPFaley:  what is the sight you so vividly remember about that mission 
 MPFaley:  one sight that is just etched in your mind 
 MPFaley:  how many spare boxes of ammo did you carry on the plane? 
 MPFaley:  for that mission and on just regular missions 
 MPFaley:  how many boxes did each gun station have 
 FrDMurphy:  We were firing constantly.  There was never a letup.  It was bedlam--a nightmare.  What I remember most is the head on attacks and masses of 20mm time fused shells from the German fighters bursting and walking through our formation.  I would turn my head away, close my eyes and await death.  
 MPFaley:  That is terrifying 
 FrDMurphy:  We carried extra boxes of ammo in the radio room.  I don't know how much our standard ammo boxes at each gun station had but it was a fair amount.  We were just overwhelmed at Regensburg. 
 MPFaley:  never expected that type or length of attack 
 FrDMurphy:  To fly across Germany at its widest point in the summer of 1943 with no fighter escort at all and only 140 aircraft in our task force and taking on the German air force at its strongest was what we were expected to do. 
 MPFaley:  and you did it.  Must have been quite a feeling to leave the target and sweat out the Alps and going to Africa 
 FrDMurphy:  The 350th was our high squadron.  They had the same day we had in the lead squadron.  We did get a respite when we turned south from the target to go to Africa.  But, there were German fighters out there and we did not  know what to expect.  The pressure was never off. 
 MPFaley:  did Maj Egan stay in the CP seat the whole mission and where was Graham on the mission (CP). Was he stood down because Egan was flying the mission? 
 MPFaley:  The 350th was your low squadron, 349th and 351st your high squadron.   
 FrDMurphy:  John Egan was in the nose with Augie Gaspar and me during the heavy fighting and fired the right nose gun.  Glenn Graham was in the CP seat the whole time. 
 MPFaley:  REALLY 
 FrDMurphy:  Yes, 
 MPFaley:  during the formation and going to North Africa did he then stand behind Crankshaft and Glenn in the cockpit? 
 MPFaley:  surprised he was not in the CP seat being the CO of the Squadron.  Another Question, were you deputy lead that day or was it Veal/Barr 
 MPFaley:  or Cleven/Scott 
 MPFaley:  in case Kidd and Blakely went down 
 FrDMurphy:  We were leading the second element of the lead squadron and were the deputy lead but had no lead responsibility unless Jack Kidd and Blakely were lost.  Egan did stand in the cockpit most of the time en route to Africa but did not occupy the right seat.  Cleven was the lead in the low squadron. 
 MPFaley:  When you touched down how much fuel did you guys have left 
 FrDMurphy:  I believe we were on fumes.  Was told the red lights on all tanks were on. 
 MPFaley:  do you recall the battle damage? 
 MPFaley:  when you landed 
 MPFaley:  and do you remember seeing any crews ditching due too running out of gas or fighters after the target 
 FrDMurphy:  We had lots of bullet holes and skin damage but our big problem was that a cannon shell had hit and severely damaged the main wing spar in our right wing.  The airplane was not safe and we left it on the ground in Africa.  Yes, I did see one airplane in the Med as we approached Africa.  Don't know who it was but it presumably ran out of fuel. 
 MPFaley:  Must have been Van Noy who ditched off of Sicily 
 FrDMurphy:  Could have been, but there were lots of airplanes from other groups up ahead of us. 
 MPFaley:  Quite a story. 
 FrDMurphy:  Yes.  Munster was equally terrifying and we did not make it.  At both Regensburg and Munster I felt I would not survive but I did.  Ann is calling me so must go.  But, please give Harry my very best and most sincere thanks for all he has done for the 100th with his incomparable contribution to our marvelous web site.  Best to you both. 
 MPFaley:  thank you Sir


Subj: atchison crew page  
Date: 5/19/2003 7:26:55 PM Pacific Daylight Time 
From: MPFaley 
To: MPFaley 
 
MPFaley:  Hi frank 
FrDMurphy:  Mike! 
MPFaley:  Question for you. Was the Atchison Crew in the 418th BS 
FrDMurphy:  Yes. 
MPFaley:  REALLY 
FrDMurphy:  Yes. 
FrDMurphy:  It was a replacement crew. 
MPFaley:  Needed to know that, all our records have this crew as a 350th BS Crew but an account from a member of the Crew raised that Question 
FrDMurphy:  It was a 418th crew. 
MPFaley:  Probably because they were shot down in a 350th plane 
MPFaley:  Thanks, that helps a lot 
FrDMurphy:  That is correct.  We, the Cruikshank were shot down in a 350th airplane. 
MPFaley:  That is true.  Were all the aircraft so shot up from Bremen and Marienburg that you had to use 350th AC 
MPFaley:  I would figure that Bill Clift caught hell from Butch to get his planes ready for the next missions.   
FrDMurphy:  We were scraping the bottom of the barrel on 10 October 1943.  We had been to Bremen on 8 October and lost 8 airplanes and to Marienburg on Saturday which was one of the longest missions of the war--200 miles east of Berlin--it took a terrific toll on our availalable aircraft. 
FrDMurphy:  The details are in my book. 
MPFaley:  that’s right 7 crews and planes at Bremen  but Blakely and Kidds plane makes 8 
MPFaley:  Now I have to read that wonderful book a third time. Everytime I read it I find something new 
FrDMurphy:  I attended the museum Board of Trustees meeting in Savannah Firday and the dedication of the carillon at the Chapel of the Fallen Eagles. Quite impressive. Our stained glass window in the chapel is fantastic. 
MPFaley:  100th BG always leads and you make a wonderful ambassador for us.  
MPFaley:  Glad you could be there representing the 100th  
FrDMurphy:  The 100th airplanes were not so shot up after Marienburg as just in need of servicing. Thanks for your kind comments. Buck Shuler put me on a committee to look at changes for the museum. They have some great ideas. 
MPFaley:  What are some of the ideas 
FrDMurphy:  They want to make the museum more educational oriented. They are taking the word "heritage" out of the name and dropping the old 8th logo on our shoulder patch from the entrance signs and letterhead as they say many young people do not pick up on it. The name wil be simply the Mighty Eighth Air Force Museum. 
I am going to Thorpe Abbotts next week. My grandson is graduating from high school this week and wants to go to Thorpe Abbotts. He is ina military school and is going to VMI next year. 
MPFaley:  Taking the 8th AF logo off the signs is not a good idea.  That is the recognition for the 8th AF 
MPFaley:  Taking out heritage is a good idea 
MPFaley:  They need to advertise, no one know it exists 
MPFaley:  except people like me, VETs and Historians, etc 
MPFaley:  what is that new textbook like they were sending out to schools? 
MPFaley:  The museum needs to be part of events such as Collings Foundation appearances, and they need to sponsor more fly ins for demonstations.  P-51, P-47, P-38, B-17, B-24, and also planes used in following Wars.   
FrDMurphy:  The problem is money. If you heard the discussion I think you would agree with the changes. They feel we desperately need to make the museum an ongoing 8th Af story--Then and Now, and bring in some of the story of the 8th since WWII. The new textbook for high schools is very good. I will try to get a copy for you. I think you will be pleased. It is done by Prentiss-Hall and is very good. 
MPFaley:  That is the education part of it.  The other reason is that by doing the educational part of this, they will be open to Grants from the Govt. 
MPFaley:  Yes, I really wanted to get one.  
MPFaley:  of those text books 
FrDMurphy:  I will get you a copy. 
MPFaley:  Thank you Frank 
MPFaley:  Was Mark Copeland at the meeting 
MPFaley:  he is on the BOD 
MPFaley:  Money is always an issue with museums.  In order to sustain, you need to draw people 
FrDMurphy:  Good news. The county has added a one cent hotel tax and is now picking up the retirement of the bond issue on the property.
Mark was not at the meeting.
  MPFaley:  You draw people by events and advertising 
MPFaley:  That is good news 
MPFaley:  If the hotels and airlines were more museum friendly, you could have more reunions down there 
FrDMurphy:  They have also established a charitable gift plan with Merrill Lynch and have a goal of $25 million to establish an endowment. 
MPFaley:  That is what they need, corporate sponsorship  
FrDMurphy:  I will say that I am very impressed with dedication of the Board. 
MPFaley:  Still, they need people to go there Frank  
MPFaley:  and you need to make it user friendly with events and promotion 
MPFaley:  Savannah is such a beautiful city, 
MPFaley:  it has something for eveyone, BUT you don’t know it unless you go there or are enticed 
MPFaley:  The 60th anniversary enticed me.  What a great get together  
MPFaley:  But, poorly coordinated between museum and Georgia Chapter of 8th Air Force Historical Society 
FrDMurphy:  Yes. I love Savannah and the museum but it may not be the best location.
I might tell you that they have located a German 88mm gun and want to set it up at the museum. They needed money and I have agreed to pay for it. Will put a 100th BG plaque on it.
MPFaley:  Both were running their own agenda's 
MPFaley:  FRANK!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! 
MPFaley:  a full 88mm 
FrDMurphy:  The Atlanta and Savannah chapters have not been on the best terms trying to upstage one another. Hope we get our act together. 
MPFaley:  Where in the hell did they find that 
MPFaley:  In the end, the 100th BG mini upstaged them all 
FrDMurphy:  I Germany, I think. Craig Harris, President of the AFHS talked to me about the gun. It is the real thing so he tells me. I told him that the German 88mm anti-aircraft gun and I are on a first name basis and I would be glad to help. 
MPFaley:  Frank that plaque should have your name, the 100th BG and Crew name of evey crew we lost to flak although I think it would be too big and expensive to do.  
MPFaley:  Those 88mm  were so deadly 
MPFaley:  MUNSTER, SCHWEINFURT, BERLIN, MERSEBURG, HAMBURG, RUHLAND, to name but a few 
FrDMurphy:  We'll see. Judy Walker, Director of Development has promised to get all the details on the gun for me and the cost. Will keep you informed.
Very deadly. The German 88mm gun is considerd by many to be the finest artillery piece of the Second World War.
MPFaley:   you can attest to that 
FrDMurphy:  Yes. I hated the flak worse than the fighters even though it was fighters that brought us down. 
MPFaley:  Thank you Frank for taking the time to chat tonight, if I can be any kind of springboard for you with the 8th Museum ideas, let me know and thank you for getting me that 8 AF School book,  
MPFaley:  Yes Flak had to be tough 
MPFaley:  sit there and take it and pray you were not in the next box barrage 
MPFaley:  absolutely frightning. I can see why guys cracked 
MPFaley:  especially is you saw a plane disappear in front of your eyes from flak 
MPFaley:  how do you deal with that Frank? 
MPFaley:  4 falling engines of what use to be a plane and 10 men, how does your mind deal with that image 
FrDMurphy:  So scary. I don't know, Mike. When they say go, you go. I don't know why but think that most guys would rather die than let the crew down. I could never bear to see my crew go withour me. Someone much brighter than me will have to come up with an answer.
My pleasure, Mike. It might take me a couple of days to get the book but I will get it off to you. Take care and will talk to you soon. Night.



Subj: Feedback: from 100thbg.com  
Date: 11/15/2004 9:24:22 PM Pacific Standard Time 
Purpose: Submit information
Email: rosserbm@vmi.edu
Name: Benjamin Rosser
Interest: Relative of veteran
Comments: My grandfather is Maj. Frank Murphy, he was in the 100th BG, 418th Squadron. He's been my guardian since I was 16 and now, a PFC in the US Army National Guard, at 20 years old, do I really understand what it means to be a soldier and an American. I wrote a poem I thought you all would like, it is about the 100th. I've written a lot of poetry and love to do so, I've won some awards but it's not about that - it's about the message. I hope you all will enjoy this work as much as I did writing it, I felt that in someway this is a tribute to all the brave souls who did not return, as well as for those who fought so many years ago above Europe.

Respectfully

PFC Ben Rosser, 2-116th INF, 29TH ID(L)

Ode to the Bloody 100th

High above her coasts and shores,
The mighty thunder of a thousand engines’ roar.
Towards the sky and over the sea,
With guns bristling fore to aft they fly onward, the steel beasts.

Those poor young bastards, so brave were they all,
And when the Hun fighters came, many of them, too many, did fall.
They were her soldiers, loyal until the end, 
They were the Bloody Hundredth, the noblest and finest of all men.

Pressing onward into the lion’s den did they ride,
Breaking the Hun’s mighty back, but so many did die.
The cost was mighty, the price was high,
But this was the cost, to preserve our way of life.

Some of her kin are now old and gray,
Telling the tales to their earnest grandchildren here today,
But others were not so lucky, and the price they did pay,
But they are not dead and buried, they aren’t lying in graves.

Look up child and you shall see with your own eyes,
A thousand white streamers rising over England’s blue skies.
And listen to the thunder of a thousand engines’ roar,
Ghosts of the Hundredth still guarding her shores.
***************************************************************************************************************


Stalag Luft III remembrances on building a radio, care package, etc. 
-----------------
Forwarded Message: 
Subj: Re: Updates  
Date: 4/23/2005 12:08:12 PM Pacific Daylight Time 
From: FrDMurphy 
To: ebork@adelphia.net 
CC: MPFaley 
 
Dear Erik,

I hope I do not give the impression that when you ask the time I answer by describing how one goes about building a clock.  But, on your question about obtaining "parts" of anything by bribery from a German guard in our POW compound in WWII I would make a couple of observations that may help you decide how best to handle your scenario.

The ingenuity and broad range of craft skills of both the British and American prisoners at Stalag Luft III in WWII was simply incredible.  POWs were often seen burrowing elbow deep in rubbish piles salvaging anything that could be useful for our prison "industries."  I daresay there was very little in the way everyday items that someone couldn't fashion.  Clothes closet hooks were heated and straightened and used as needles for knitting and perling.  Sweaters were unraveled for yarn and very wearable, warm socks were a cottage industry.

Our tinsmiths made leakproof cooking pots and pans by cutting off the edges of food cans, rolling them out in long sheets, creasing each edge and joining two pieces with a narrow strip that had its two edges creased.  The narrow strip was slid over two pieces of tin and tapped smooth and tight in place.  To insure the pots would hold water or liquid a batch of barley was cooked in them to serve as a sealing agent.  Users were warned not to clean the corners of the pots too thoroughly.  All of us used these "kriegie-made" cooking utensils.

Our forgers and tailors could make authentic copies of any document or article of clothing they could get their hands on as you know from the many stories about Stalag Luft III.

Now, to your question and a bit of background:

1)  Construction on the South Compound theater began in October 1943, the month I arrived there.  You will see photos of the theater on the ninth page of the photo section following page 185 in my book, Luck of the Draw.  It was erected entirely by the American POWs with the assistance of one German supervisor.  Kriegies who were brick layers or carpenters back home were pressed into service.  Unskilled POWs worked as general laborers.  The carpenters and electricians installed overhead ceiling lights and a catwalk above the stage for electricians and their movable spot lights.  It was unbelievably first class.

The catch, however, from our "X" committee standpoint was that the POWs had to pledge to be completely honest about the tools supplied by the Germans and to account faithfully for them.  Otherwise, the Germans could stop construction of the theater or close it permanently at any time.

2)  As I also say in my book (page 201), while the number of letters that could be sent to an American prisoner was unlimited, this was not true of parcels.  Also, next of kin of POWs in  enemy hands were required by the U.S. government to strictly adhere to a narrow list of permissible items that could be sent to interned Americans.  For parcels containing clothing or tobacco products the POW's next of kin had to obtain a parcel or tobacco label from the Prisoner of War Division of the Army Service Forces in Washing ton and paste it on the outside of each package.  The Army would not issue parcel or tobacco products labels unless the POW's permanent address was known and then only one parcel and two tobacco labels were issued in any issue period, which in 1944 was every sixty days.

The delivery time for these packages was usually between 2-3 months.  Only limited food items were permitted, canned flour, baking powder, chocolate, spices, and sweeteners such as saccharin.  We had early Nescafe powdered coffee in our Red Cross boxes but no ground coffee.

I presume the rules for the British POWs in the North Compound were very similar.

But, of course, apart from the above our scroungers had a free hand as previously said--and they were generally quite successful.

I believe your best plausible "innocent" explanation for your POW caught red-handed
with a piece of electrical equipment or hardware would be for him to attempt to explain that he is an electrician in the theater and has the item in his possession for repairs or something like that.  The theater staff did perform ongoing maintenance and were regularly reworking the stage scenery and lighting for different performances, plays, music, choruses, etc.  Perhaps with a bit of clever dialogue the miscreant can try to "wing" his way through what its function really is, to avoid surrendering a dear illegal item of important equipment.   

I hope this will be of help

Personal best wishes,

Frank Murphy

****************************************

----- Original Message ----- 
From: "Kevin Murphy" 
To: 
Sent: Monday, June 18, 2007 3:43 PM
Subject: Update

Dear All,

I am sorry to report that my father, Frank Murphy, passed away this past 
Saturday JUNE 16, 2007 at home due to an extended illness. I know
that he enjoyed very much his association with all of you over the years.

Look forward to hearing from you soon,
Kevin Murphy
*************************************************************************

REPLY TO: joneil50@bellsouth.net

SUBMITTER: John O'Neil

EMAIL: joneil50@bellsouth.net

PURPOSE: Report a death (TAPS)

INTEREST: I am the veteran's friend

  
VETERAN: Frank D. Murphy

DATE OF DEATH: 06/16/07 

FAMILY CONTACT: Anne Murphy (Spouse)

404-238-9515  

MESSAGE: Frank D. Murphy, Navigator on Crew 31, 100th Bomb Group, 418th BS, Thorpe Abbotts passed away 6/16/07.  Shot down on 10/10/43 "Munster Raid"  Frank was the  author of the book "Luck of the Draw - Reflections on the Air War in Europe.  A POW for 19 months and true American hero..He will be missed…
********************************************

FRANK DeSALES MURPHY Frank DeSales Murphy, 85, of Atlanta, died June 16, 2007. Mr. Murphy served in the U.S. Army Air Corp during World War II with the 100th Bombardment Group stationed in Thorpe-Abbotts, England and achieved the ranks of Major and Navigator. During the war he became a P.O.W. at Stalag Luft III (which was known for The Great Escape) and received a Purple Heart. He later wrote the book ?Luck of the Draw? which was published in 2001 and was about his reflections of the air war in Europe. After returning home from Europe he graduated from Emory University. Mr. Murphy also enjoyed a 33 year career with Lockheed Georgia and retired in 1987 as Vice President of International Sales for Lockheed Saudi Arabia. He was a 50 year member of the Georgia Bar Association, a past Commander of The American Legion Post 134, a member of the World War II Round Table, and served on the Board of Trustees for the Mighty 8th Air Force Museum. Mr. Murphy enjoyed playing music and for many years played with the Atlanta 17, and New Horizons Bands. He was preceded in death by his son, Frank DeSales Murphy, Jr.; daughter, Patricia Murphy Rosser; and grandson, William Patrick Murphy. Survivors include his wife of 58 years, Ann Murphy; daughter, Elizabeth Murphy Melas; son, Michael Kevin Murphy; grandchildren, Michael C. Murphy, Laura Murphy, Natalie Murphy, Chloe Melas, Stefanos Melas, Benjamin M. Rosser; and brother, John H. Murphy. In lieu of flowers, contributions may be made to the Mighty 8th Air Force Museum, 175 Bourne Ave, Pooler, GA 31328 or to the American Cancer Society, 2970 Clairmont Rd, suite 840, Atlanta, GA 30329. An online memorial may be viewed at www.mem.com. A Funeral Mass will be Friday, June 22, 2007 at 11 o'clock at St. Jude the Apostle Catholic Church with The Reverend James Fennessy as the Celebrant. Interment will follow at Arlington Memorial Park. The family will receive friends Thursday from 6 to 8 o'clock at H.M. Patterson and Son, Arlington Chapel, 173 Allen Rd, Sandy Springs, GA 30328.

MEMO 2:

Original 100th, Crew #31
********************************
Interviewed by Mal Roseman, July 10, 2003 for the Atlanta Historical Society.
“I was born in Atlanta on September 9, 1921, at St. Joseph’s Infirmary.  We lived in the Grant Park area of Atlanta.  My dad was a tailor; he worked for his father, who owned a tailoring shop down on Decatur Street just off Five Points.  My mother was born in Atlanta in 1899, not too far from where lived when I was born.
In the fall of 1939 I entered Emory University, I was in Emory from that time until the war started in 1941.  When the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, I immediately thought about going into the Army.  So I went down to the Army recruiting office—it was December of 1941 ---and made an application to go into their aviation cadet program, with the idea that like everybody else that was going in in those days, I would be an Army pilot.
In January, it wasn’t long, just two or three weeks later in January, they did call me and I reported to the Army All Recruiting Office at the old post office in downtown Atlanta, and I was sworn in as an aviation cadet and immediately sent to Maxwell Field, Alabama which was the receiving station for new aviation cadets.  We rode the train all that night.  There was about six or seven of us.  All of us, who had never met each other until we were sworn in together at the old post office, we went over to Herren’s Restaurant on Luckie Street next to the Rialto and we had dinner, and then we walked down to the old Terminal Station in Atlanta and we got on the train and went down to Maxell field.
[After Training as a navigator at Turner Field Albany, Georgia, followed by additional training as part of a flight crew for a B-17 bomber at Sebring, Florida] in November of 1942 I was assigned to a newly established bomb group, the 100th Bomb Group, and when the crew postings were made I was the navigator on crew number 31 of the 418th squadron.  And that was the crew that I stayed with for the next year practically, before we were shot down over Germany.  In early May [1943] they told us that we were going to Europe, to join the 8th Air Force.
My first mission took place on June 28 [1943].  I do remember the feeling that I had the first time we flew over France, because, although we didn’t come under attack----it was really an uneventful day---it was strange to be flying over a country that we knew was entirely occupied by the Germans.  If for any reason we had to go down, we were essentially in enemy territory.  And I had what I describe as a little fluttery feeling that I had every time that we went out from then on.  I called it my ‘sitting duck syndrome” ---and it never went away. It wasn’t anything that would cause you to be unable to function, but it was a feeling that you had that didn’t go away, that danger of some kind was lurking out there somewhere.
[On October 10, 1943] we were told that we were going to fly that day to bomb the railroad yards at Munster, Germany.  We left the English coast about one o’clock in the afternoon and we were in full formation with the 13th Combat Wing.  We crossed the German border about a quarter to three.  We had had very heavy anti-aircraft fire because unknown to us, the Germans had brought in several batteries of heavy railroad flak guns that were positioned almost directly underneath our flight path, and so we came under intense anti-aircraft fire.  We didn’t lose any airplanes but is was frightening experience.  But as soon as we reached the outskirts of the city the anti-aircraft fire stopped, and we were hit by the largest force of fighters we had ever seen.  Upwards of 200 German single and twin-engine fighters had been warned and were waiting for us.  I remember looking out the window, as I was getting ready to fire my gun, and I counted over seventy German fighter aircraft climbing up to intercept us---and I hadn’t even finished counting before they began to attack.  They came out in wave after wave firing, came in head on.  It was a melee, just a dreadful experience.
We did manage to drop our bombs and we made a left turn, sweeping left turn to leave the city and to go to the rendezvous with the other groups at what we called a rally point, which is where we re-assembled to fly back to England.  We had just made our turn when two German Me-109 aircraft came in behind us and really worked us over with their 20mm cannon.  I was firing the gun in the left cheek of our airplane when there was a big explosion behind me.  All of a sudden, I was knocked to the floor and it felt like somebody hit me with a baseball bat and threw a bucket of hot water on me.  I knew that I had been hit by some kind of shell.
About that time the copilot came down from the flight deck.  He pulled the emergency handle, the forward escape door, and he motioned for me to follow him and he jumped out.  And I remember being frozen watching him fall and tumble over and over as he went down.  But I knew that I had to go, so I clipped on my chest pack.  We were at 21,000 feet. And at 21,000 feet on a clear day the ground looks a million miles away.  But I shut my eyes and pushed myself out of the airplane.  I had no choice. And then all of the sudden I was out and I was thinking, you know, what am I involved in?  I pulled the rip cord on the parachute, and it slipped up in front of my face and it was a loud thunder cracking sound as it popped open.  Of course, then I realized I was dangling up there. And I was still probably five miles up in the air.  I remember it was very, very cold.  It was so cold, and I had taken off my gloves to fire my gun and my hands were freezing.  And on top of that, because I had been hit by fragments of the cannon shell that exploded my left arm was numb.  It didn’t hurt but I couldn’t use it.
A German fighter flew straight at me, and I thought he was going to shoot me while I was hanging in the parachute, but he didn’t.  He just pulled up and went away.  It took me about twenty minutes to reach the ground, but as I got very close to the ground I realized how fast I was falling, because with the parachutes that we had, the rate of decent was seventeen feet per second, which is pretty fast.  And as I got close to the ground I could see that two men were running over to where I was. Well, I did hit the ground. It was in the country.  It was farm land, farm country, and I had hit the ground.  And because I had tensed up slightly before I did, I sprained my right foot very bad.  My left arm was numb and practically useless, and I was trying to extricate myself from my parachute, when these two men came up to me.  The first thing they said was, “Deutsch?” and I knew that what they were asking was in German.  And I said “No, American.” And then they backed off a little bit. They were probably as frightened of me as I was of them.
Finally, I managed to get out of my parachute and get to my feet, and they motioned me to follow them, and I started to walk off, and they got very angry and pointed at the parachute and insisted that I take it.  I picked up the parachute and was walking, and we came across two women and one of them said in English, very good English: “For you the war is over.” The two women took me to a farmhouse, and they took me inside, and just inside the door there was a water pump.  They filled a porcelain basin with water and set it down, and then they brought some cloths for me, because I was bleeding, to clean up with.
They were ---I’d have to say, you know, they weren’t antagonistic, they weren’t sympathetic particularly, but at the same time they didn’t do anything that I would consider belligerent towards me. But the two men, in the meantime, had gone out and found a local policeman. So, by the time I got through sort of cleaning up, there was a policeman in the room with a pistol and he pointed it at me, I raised my hands as best I could. He took me outside.  A large group of people gathered out there and they were just standing watching---gawking, more or less. They didn’t make any hostile move toward me, except that one woman was very emphatic and cursing me in some way, and they insisted again that I pick up my parachute, which I had dropped outside.  I later understood that she said to me, “There’s your cross, pick it up and carry it.”
Anyway, we started down the road and we hadn’t gone very far when a big open touring car came along, and who was in the back seat but the pilot of my airplane, and the car was driven by two of the home guards in military uniforms.  They were older men, and he yelled at them, they stopped and they picked me up.  Well, they took us then to the collection point for American prisoners.  We had probably twenty-five American airman in there.  
That night they took me to the base hospital where a German doctor kind of cleaned me up but he didn’t do a whole lot for me, and then they sent me back to this detention building.  The next day we were put on a train and we were taken to Frankfurt, Germany, and to a place which was an interrogation center.  It was where they did nothing but prisoner interrogation.  I was put into a little cell. I’d say it was probably five or six feet wide, maybe a few feet long.  There was only one window there and it was frosted glass at the top near the ceiling. They had a wooden cot with a straw mattress and they took my flying clothes, my jacket.  So really all I had was just the shirt and trousers that I had on.  I was there a week and I was interrogated by German officers several times.
They took us out and put us in boxcars and they sent us all the way across Germany to Stalag Luft III.  Not passenger cars, freight cars. And, unfortunately, they moved a lot of animals in them before they moved us, it wasn’t the greatest environment in the world.  We got to Stalag Luft III at Sagan, which was about ninety miles east of Berlin and that was a prisoner of war camp for American officers. And that’s where we were.  I was there for the next sixteen months from October 26, 1943 until January 27, 1945.
Initially the camp was not that bad because it had been built for about a thousand people and they only had 1,200 in there, so we were not terribly crowded. Eventually, as the war went on and as more and more American airplanes were shot down, they kept bringing people and we became very, very crowded. Although our treatment initially was what I would call proper---that is, that they didn’t do anything brutal to us---they didn’t do anything for us.  I never got any clothing of German origin.  For six months I only had the clothes on my back when I was captured.  Our meals were very, very sparse, because we were given the same ration as the German civilian population that was old and disabled, which was the lowest food ration in Germany. We had some Red Cross parcels that would supplement German food from time to time, so I would say for the first year I was a POW---nobody likes to be locked up night and day and confined---but so far as physical punishment was concerned, I didn’t get physical punishment, but we were hungry all the time.  I lost probably twenty-five pounds during our first year.
On the night of January 27, 1945, we were told by the Germans that we were going to be evacuated within an hour, to be ready to move.  We had expected it because we could hear the heavy artillery of the Russian Army that had reached the point only sixteen miles from us. We knew the Russians were not far away.  So it was not a surprise that the Germans would want us to move.  But they ordered us to go and march.  They came and called us about nine o’clock that Saturday night to be ready to go in an hour.
So we were outside and we hastily put on all the socks we had, put on two pair of pants.  I had an overcoat, I put it on, and gloves, and I had a little woolen cap, and I put on everything I had, and went outside about eleven o’clock and started marching.  It was very cold.  It was ten or fifteen-degrees Fahrenheit, well below freezing.  The wind was blowing.  The snow was about knee-deep.  It was just a bitterly cold winter night.  We walked all that night in the snow.  We had stopped about five in the morning for about a half hour, then we walked all the rest of that day until four o’clock that afternoon, and then we came to a little town where they had some barns.  They let us go inside and at least we got out of the cold and there was some hay on the ground.
There were two thousand Americans.  We were there for several hours and then they got us up and we marched again all of that night.  Well, we had no food, no water, and of course people began to fall out from exhaustion, and so we had any number men who just collapsed by the side of the road, and we would go up them and we’d say. “You can’t lay here and die, you have got to get up and go with us, and if you have anything we’ll carry it if we can help you.” And as often as not they’d say, no. So, it was a grim, grim situation.  The Germans just left them on the road.  I don’t know what happened to most of them.
We came to a little town and they had these railroad cars lined up.  They’d put sixty men to a car and we could hardly stand up.  We couldn’t sit down and of course the guys were sick and---anyway. We were on there for two days and three nights and we finally got to a place where they opened up the cars and let us off---we were at Stalag VIIA in Moosburg, Germany and we were there for about three months ---February, March, and April of 1945, and it was a dreadful place, a hell hole. The camp was built for 14,000 prisoners; they had about 15,000 POW’s in there. But on April 29, 1945, a spearhead of the American 14th Armored Division came in and knocked the gate down and turned us loose. So we got out.”

********************************
Oral History:

Frank D. Murphy, 418th Bomb Squadron, 100th Bomb Group
November 10, 2005
Interviewer: Dr. Vivian Rogers-Price


Born in Atlanta, GA, 09/09/1921

015 – Grew up in Atlanta, spent two years in Cleveland, Ohio (1929-1930) during the Depression, where his father worked.  Came back to Atlanta in 1931, where he lived till the start of WWII

024 – at home, after dinner, when his father heard on the radio about the Pearl Harbor attacks

046 – knew he would soon get into the war, as a few months before the draft had been reinstated

054 – decided if he was going to go into the armed forces, he wanted to go into the AAF, because, as a student at Emory, he had flown piper cubs solo at flight instruction school in Atlanta and knew he would want to be a pilot in the AAF

070 – decided two weeks after Pearl Harbor to join the AAF to ensure his ability to get the job he wanted

082 – called by AAF recruiters and sworn in as aviation cadet 01/19/1942.  Did not bother registering for school at beginning of January.

099 – sent to Maxwell Field, Montgomery, Alabama.  The place was full of new cadets from all over the East Coast.  Very well organized.  In the Barracks for two weeks before being sent to stay in a tent for three weeks.  Taught to drill, march, etc.  Given aptitude tests and mental tests to determine talents.

133 – Had a problem discovered after two months; Frank had trouble with depth perception.  Tactical Officer called Frank into the office one day; gave Frank the option of making his own decision of what to do about it.  Frank was told that the AAF needed navigators as bad as pilots.

158 – when it became evident Frank would not make it through pilot training, he volunteered for navigation training.  

163 – sent to Turner Field, Albany, Georgia.  

178 – navigation training a combination of flight instruction and classroom, with emphasis on the latter.  

198 – while learning celestial navigation discovered that, despite the vast number of stars in the sky, only about 20 were used often in navigation.

216 – due to the great need for navigators, the training was intense and short.  

222 – graduated from navigator school on 07/04/1942.  Immediately sent to AAF Combat Crew School at Sebring Florida, Hendricks Field.  Assigned to B-17 training, with training crew as navigator.  This training was primarily for the officers of future crews, to teach them to work as a team.

241 – at Sebring for a month, before being sent to 2nd Air Force at Salt Lake City in September, 1942.  Then sent to Gowen Field, Boise, Idaho.  There he worked with many of the same people he had flown with at Sebring.

258 – In November, 1942, the 100th Bomb Group was formed at Walla Walla, Washington, and Frank permanently assigned to this BG, 418th Bomb Squadron and placed with a permanent crew that he would eventually go overseas with.

269 – Pilot was Charlie Cruikshank, from Everett, Massachusetts; Co-Pilot was Chuck Mertz, from Omaha, Nebraska; Bombardier was August Gasper, from Oakland, California; Ball Turret gunner Robert Bixler, from Bisbee, Arizona; Top Turret Gunner was Leonard Weeks, from West Virginia, Radio Operator was Orlando Vincini, from Carbondale, Pennsylvania; Right Waist Gunner was James Johnson, from Oklahoma; Left Waist Gunner Don Garrison from Illinois; Tail Gunner was Charles Clark, from Allan Park, Illinois.  Murphy flew with this crew for almost a year.

291 - Once together, the crew was transferred to Wendover Field, Utah, for training as a squadron and group, practice gunnery, bombing, formation flying, etc.  This training continued at many different airfields for four-five months.

300 – April, 1943, sent to Kearney, Nebraska, a staging field for crews headed overseas, where the crew received a new B-17 and were told they were being deployed to England to join the 8th Air Force.

324 – The B-17 assigned was meant to be the crew’s permanent plane, though things would not work out that way.

327 – The crew’s 1st mission, June, 1943, to St. Nazaire (sp.?) to bomb submarine pens.  The flak was heavy and their B-17 sustained heavy damage and was taken out of service for two to three weeks.  The next time the crew flew they had to use a different airplane.

348 – the crew knew they were going to England, but not where in England.  They flew from Kearney, Nebraska, to Selfridge Field, Detroit, Michigan, to Bangor, Main, to Goose Bay, Labrador, to Reykjavik, Iceland, to Prestwick, Scotland.  

362 – once in Prestwick, on May 31, 1943, the crew learned their permanent base at Thorpe Abbots, England, was not finished, so for a week they were sent to an RAF base at Podington.  

370 – Group moved to Thorpe Abbots on June 9, 1943, and continued practicing.  

378 – The crew named their B-17 “The Bastard’s Bungalow,” since they never knew where they were going next.  The name was painted on the plane.

407 – during the first mission most of the crew was excited, although nervous.  

414 – while the crew’s first bombing mission was to St. Nazaire, their first time over the continent came two days earlier, 06/26/1943, when they were sent to bomb a German aircraft engine overhaul facility at LeMans, France.  The weather was so bad over Northern France that the formation turned back.

426 – on 06/28/1944, the crew flew a bombing mission to St. Nazaire, encountering heavy flak damage that put their plane out of working condition for about two weeks, during which the crew flew other aircraft.

434 – Murphy flew 20 successful mission, and was shot down on his 21st mission.  The two most dramatic missions he flew were as follows….  In Late July, to Hamburg, to participate in the heavy bombing of that city.  August 17, 1943, part of the task force of the 3rd Air Division, to Regensburg, Ger, to bomb an aircraft factory, after which they turned and flew over Italy and landed in North Africa.  The 9th Bomb Group lost nine airplanes, half the strength that took off.

455 – on the Regensburg mission, the enemy fighters were much more deadly than the flak.  Fighters sustained their attack for a full hour that day.  The 8th AAF split its forces that day, half going to Regensburg and half to Schweinfurt.  Between the two taskforces 60 bombers were lost, out of less than 300 flying.

474 – Murphy found the destruction in the air around him to be unbelievable.  There was no friendly fighter escorts for the bombers.  The sight was very frightening, with the fighters attacking head-on.

494 – upon landing in North Africa, Murphy was very thankful to have made it.  It turned out that their airplane was badly damaged enough that they could not fly it back to England.  They all recognized that luck, skill, and bravery had little to do with it – all one could do was hope to not be next.  

515 – the Air Transport Command picked up the crew and flew them to Marrakech, Morocco, where they stayed for three of four days, then flew back to England.  In Marrakech, the crew went to a famous town square, with jugglers and fortune tellers.

531 – the crew resumed flying in England, with 14 missions to go.  They flew many missions in September, including Kassel.  

540 – In October Murphy had 17 or 18 missions, and flew to Emden on Oct. 4th.  The crew participated in Black Week from Oct. 4th – 8th.  

550 – Saturday, Oct. 9th, 1943, the crew flew a mission to Marienburg, Germany, 200 miles east of Berlin, where the primary factor for the production of the German FW190 Fighter aircraft was located.  Murphy was lead navigator for the formation that day, and flew with Col. Harding, the group’s CO.  The mission took 12 hours.  This mission was largely successful, as the Germans had not placed many defensive positions there because it was so far into German territory.  The bombers dropped from 12,000 feet that day.  

572 – Upon returning to Thorpe Abbots, Col. Harding was told the group would fly again the next day, Oct. 10th, 1943, to Munster, Germany.

579 – Oct 10th, 1943, the bomb group flew again.  Out of the thirteen bombers sent up by the 100th Bomb Group, twelve were shot down.  Rosie Rosenthal was the pilot of the only airplane that returned to England.  Murphy was shot down that day.  

590 – 25 of the 46 airplanes sent in to Munster that day by the 100th Bomb Group, 95th BG, and 390th BG were shot down in ten minutes.  The groups shot down 30 German fighters.  The 8th AAF was sent again on a maximum effort mission to Schweinfurt the following week, at which time they lost 60 airplanes.

600 – As the formation approached Munster they were under heavy flak from 105mm rail-road mounted anti-aircraft guns that were near the target more out of sheer luck than planning by the Germans, between the IP and the city.  

613 – Murphy counted between 65 and 70 German fighters waiting for the bombers to pass through the flak, after which they attacked head on.  

629 – Having dropped their bombs on the city (which was the target), Murphy’s plane began a sweeping left turn to head to the rally point.  At that point ME 109s attacked the aircraft from behind, killing the tail gunner and starting two fires in the aircraft, one in the radio room and one in the number three engine.  The fires were out of control, forcing the crew to abandon the airplane.  Murphy was firing a machine gun in the nose of the airplane when a canon shell went off behind him, knocking him down and spraying him with shrapnel.  While wondering what had happened, the copilot came from the flight deck and motioned to Murphy to follow him and promptly jumped out of the plane.  Murphy followed.  

663 – it took Murphy upwards of 20 minutes to hit the ground, during which time he was checked out by an ME 109

674 – coming down, 20 miles NE of Munster, Murphy could see people running to where he would land.  Murphy sprained his ankle badly upon landing, and had trouble getting out of his parachute.  While he struggled, three German farmers approached him.  One spoke, asking “Deutsch?”  When Murphy answered American, they backed off until they saw he was wounded.  As the farmers escorted him to a nearby farmhouse, a woman told Murphy in perfect English “for you the war is over.”  She asked if he was hurt, and they took him into the farmhouse.  Two women brought water and allowed Murphy to clean himself.  

708 – By the time Murphy had cleaned himself up a local policeman showed up with a gun and took Murphy.  Murphy was not frightened, but thankful that he had landed alive.

715 – while the Germans were not friendly, and yelled at Murphy in German, they did not physically abuse him.  Murphy walked with the policeman down a road, having trouble with his sprained ankle and bleeding ankle, when a large German touring car drove past with two Homeguards in it, 40-50 years old.  Sitting in the backseat of the car was Charlie Cruikshank, Murphy’s pilot.  They picked up Murphy and then drove to a police station.

END OF TAPE ONE

TAPE TWO

015 – Murphy was first taken to the small town of Kattenvenne, where the Germans were collecting prisoners.  After about 15-20 airmen had been collected, they drove them to Munster-Handorf airbase, which had a brig-type building.  Eventually as many as fifty American airmen were collected there with Murphy.  

047 – While talking with a young man from the 390th BG, Sean Wanum?, who was the son of the American ambassador to England.  

061 – While at the airbase Murphy received medical attention.  

070 – the next day the prisoners were sent on a train to Frankfurt, where the Germans had an interrogation center set up called Dulag-luft.  Murphy was placed in solitary confinement (6’x8’ room).  The prisoners’ shoes and flight jackets were taken.  

087 – Murphy was there for 5-6 days and was interrogated 3-4 times.

099 – Murphy’s shoes were returned and he was sent to Stalag-luft III.  

113 – Murphy was placed in the South Compound at Stalag-luft III, which had just been opened.  He was surprised to see the newness of the complex.  The barracks and buildings were austere but adequate.  Rooms were designed to hold twelve men, but before long the rooms were overcrowded.  South Compound was intended to hold 1200 men, though eventually there were over 2000 men there.  

139 – for the first year Murphy was a POW, though they never received clothes or adequate German rations, the POWs were allowed and did receive Red Cross Packages.  However, everything canned was punctured.

158 – during the first year Murphy lost only 10-15 pounds.  Only towards the end of 1944 did Murphy begin to lose much weight.  Also, they were overcrowded and not given enough coal.  

180 – to keep up with the news, the POWs could hear German news over loudspeakers and receive German newspapers.

207 – the real, reliable news, however, the prisoners got through a clandestine radio they nicknamed “the Canary.”  The radios would occasionally be disassembled and moved to another location.  Men would memorize the BBC newsbroadcasts and travel from barracks to barracks telling it.  

232 – Murphy received a journal from the Red Cross, but did not keep his during the evacuation.  

237 – Murphy passed time by playing in the POW band in the camp.  He had played clarinet and saxophone at Emory, and did the same in the camp.

267 – the POWs built their own theatre, and had a glee club and would perform concerts and plays there.  The Germans supplied most of the basic materials for the theatre, and the POWs built it.  

275 – Murphy speaks of the wide variety of skills that were found among the POWs in Stalag-Luft III.  The camp was full of officers, mainly college graduates, with skills ranging from electricians to engineers to architects, etc.  When the POWs began to dig tunnels, they had mining engineers from Colorado to supervise.  

285 – the POWs once put on a Latin American show.  Under the Geneva Conventions, the POWs were supposed to be paid just like the German Officers.  The Germans kept an account book, and would credit the accounts.  The Germans would allow the POWs to acquire materials for costumes with their credits.  At their Latin American show, the band played latin music and one of the POWs dressed as Carmen Miranda and sang and danced.

309 – Packages from home were allowed, though the government was very strict about what and how often packages could be sent.  Many books were restricted, anything political was restricted.  Mail was supposedly unlimited, though it did not work out.  The POWs were allowed to send 1 letter and 3 postcards a month.

330 – Mail was slow.  Murphy was captured in Oct, 1943, and received his first letter from home in March of 1944.  In June 1944 Murphy received a letter his mother wrote him on Christmas 1943.  

347 – Murphy’s parents received word that he was a POW two weeks after he was shot down, when they were sent a MIA telegram by the government.  

371 – Life at Stalag-luft III was ‘okay’ from Oct. 1943 till about Oct. 1944, as they were not abused, though clothing, housing, and food were inadequate.  The prisoners also lacked sufficient fuel for heating.  

386 – through the winter of 1944 conditions slowly worsened, until January 27, 1945, when the POWs were force evacuated to flee the advancing Russian Armies.  

397 – given only an hour to prepare for the evacuation, the POWs frantically attempted to prepare.  Murphy aimed for things he could reasonably carry and that would keep him warm.  

407 – the POWs set out, marching all night till five in the morning, with a few minutes of rest at every hour.  At five a.m., they were given an hour’s break, though they were kept outside.  They then set out to march till late that afternoon.  By that time people began to drop off, drop out.  

424 – The POWs came to a town where there was an abandoned factory, and Colonel Goodrich, the senior American officer, told the Germans the POWs wouldn’t travel anymore.  The Germans placed the POWs in the factory.  They were there that night, and although the Germans wanted to move again the next morning, Goodrich’s intervention won them another day of rest.  The next night they marched all night, and all the next day.

441 – eventually the group reached Sprenburg, where they were taken to a railroad stop.  65-70 men were crowded into each boxcar, which had been designed to hold 40 men.  

446 – locked in, the POWs road for the next two days and three nights, ending at Mooseburg, Stalag-Luft VIIA.

459 – Upon arriving at Mooseburg, the sight of Stalag VIIA was very depressing.  Ground was covered with snow, building were old hovels, and as the Germans opened the gate a horse-drawn cart drove by with dead airmen on it.  

472 – The camp was overcrowded, featured POWs from every prison camp in German.  Designed to hold 10-12,000, there wound up being over 100,000 prisoners there.  Red Cross Parcels were no longer being issued, only German bread and occasionally German soup.  Buildings were infested with fleas, bedbugs, and lice.  The POWs were there for about three months.

486 – While at Mooseburg, especially in April, the POWs could see P-51s flying over the camp occasionally, as well as large formations of bombers, a “spectacular” sight.

506 – The POWs were not surprised at the large numbers of bombers, partially because of the influx of new prisoners who told of the turning tide of the war.

514 – there were no activities for the POWs to occupy their time with at Mooseburg.  No facilities, no ability to write, etc.  Rooms of every size were crowded wall to wall.  The only activity was to wait for the war to end.

522 – The 14th armored division came into the vicinity of Mooseburg on the night of April 28th.  The senior British and American officers, together with the Red Cross representative and the commandant of the Prison Camp, went out and met the allies under a truce flag.  

538 – The Germans wanted to negotiate the surrender of the camp, but the American forces nearby demanded the unconditional surrender of the camp by 9 a.m. the following morning (April 29th) or the Americans would attack.  The German Area Commander refused.  The next day the Americans did begin to attack.  As the POWs listened it dawned on them what was going on.  Eventually the gun battle nearby died down as the Germans retreated, and two Sherman tanks came up and knocked down the front gate of the prison camp.  

553 – Murphy stayed near to the camp, though he viewed the surrounding area with some interest.  After a day or two an American army unit showed up with additional food.  Patton came by for a day.  Finally, after about a week, the Americans came and deloused the POWs, taking them by truck to an airfield near Regensburg, where they were flown to Liege, Belgium, then taken by train to Camp Lucky Strike near LeHavre, France.   

575 – Murphy stayed at Camp Lucky Strike for a few days, since he had a touch of pneumonia, and received penicillin, which he had never heard of.  He was then put on a hospital ship, which stopped at South Hampton, England, to take on more patients, then sailed for the U.S. in a thirty ship convoy.  It took 12 days to cross the ocean, and they landed at the Boston 5th Pier.  Taken to camp Myles Standish in Taunton, Massachusetts, and finally to Fort McPherson in Atlanta.

592 – upon arriving at Fort McPherson, Murphy called his parents, whom he hadn’t heard from since September, 1944, and it was now June, 1945.  His mother answered and began crying.  His parents came and picked him up and “that was it.”

607 – Murphy served in the Army because Japan had maliciously and underhandedly attacked the United States, and felt an obligation and desire to go and fight back.  

620 – Murphy reveals why the 100th Bomb Group is called “The Bloody Hundredth.”  One theory is that it originated from the many missions the 100th BG flew on which it took extremely heavy losses.  Freeman thought it was because word got around in England during the war that the 100th BG took very heavy losses.  Murphy and Freeman deny that the 100th BG took such heavy losses because of inept leadership or a lack of discipline.  

675 – one story that became legendary was that at Regensburg a pilot with a damaged airplane turned to go home, and as the Germans attacked the pilot, knowing he wouldn’t make it home, lowered his wheels in a sign of surrender.  When the German fighters came in to escort them to the ground, the gunners on the plane opened fire and shot down several of the Germans.  Supposedly this story got around in the German Air Force, and after that the Fighter pilots looked especially hard for planes from the 100th BG.  Murphy, in Germany during the 1980s, talked to many German fighter pilots about this story, all of whom denied the veracity of this story.  

698 – Murphy returned to Emory on the GI Bill, and majored in Business with a minor in Science.  

705 – Murphy ends the interview with a note on the necessity of having young people to carry on the 100th BG Association, and other such associations.  He fears that without some central place to preserve the 8th AAF’s history it would be lost.  He believes that this museum will serve that function, and the individual associations will increasingly go away.   

******************
Oral History:
 
Frank D. Murphy, 418th Bomb Squadron, 100th Bomb Group
November 10, 2005
Interviewer: Dr. Vivian Rogers-Price
 
 
Born in Atlanta, GA, 09/09/1921
 
015 – Grew up in Atlanta, spent two years in Cleveland, Ohio (1929-1930) during the Depression, where his father worked.  Came back to Atlanta in 1931, where he lived till the start of WWII
 
024 – at home, after dinner, when his father heard on the radio about the Pearl Harbor attacks
 
046 – knew he would soon get into the war, as a few months before the draft had been reinstated
 
054 – decided if he was going to go into the armed forces, he wanted to go into the AAF, because, as a student at Emory, he had flown piper cubs solo at flight instruction school in Atlanta and knew he would want to be a pilot in the AAF
 
070 – decided two weeks after Pearl Harbor to join the AAF to ensure his ability to get the job he wanted
 
082 – called by AAF recruiters and sworn in as aviation cadet 01/19/1942.  Did not bother registering for school at beginning of January.
 
099 – sent to Maxwell Field, Montgomery, Alabama.  The place was full of new cadets from all over the East Coast.  Very well organized.  In the Barracks for two weeks before being sent to stay in a tent for three weeks.  Taught to drill, march, etc.  Given aptitude tests and mental tests to determine talents.
 
133 – Had a problem discovered after two months; Frank had trouble with depth perception.  Tactical Officer called Frank into the office one day; gave Frank the option of making his own decision of what to do about it.  Frank was told that the AAF needed navigators as bad as pilots.
 
158 – when it became evident Frank would not make it through pilot training, he volunteered for navigation training.  
 
163 – sent to Turner Field, Albany, Georgia.  
 
178 – navigation training a combination of flight instruction and classroom, with emphasis on the latter.  
 
198 – while learning celestial navigation discovered that, despite the vast number of stars in the sky, only about 20 were used often in navigation.
 
216 – due to the great need for navigators, the training was intense and short.  
 
222 – graduated from navigator school on 07/04/1942.  Immediately sent to AAF Combat Crew School at Sebring Florida, Hendricks Field.  Assigned to B-17 training, with training crew as navigator.  This training was primarily for the officers of future crews, to teach them to work as a team.
 
241 – at Sebring for a month, before being sent to 2nd Air Force at Salt Lake City in September, 1942.  Then sent to Gowen Field, Boise, Idaho.  There he worked with many of the same people he had flown with at Sebring.
 
258 – In November, 1942, the 100th Bomb Group was formed at Walla Walla, Washington, and Frank permanently assigned to this BG, 418th Bomb Squadron and placed with a permanent crew that he would eventually go overseas with.
 
269 – Pilot was Charlie Cruikshank, from Everett, Massachusetts; Co-Pilot was Chuck Mertz, from Omaha, Nebraska; Bombardier was August Gasper, from Oakland, California; Ball Turret gunner Robert Bixler, from Bisbee, Arizona; Top Turret Gunner was Leonard Weeks, from West Virginia, Radio Operator was Orlando Vincini, from Carbondale, Pennsylvania; Right Waist Gunner was James Johnson, from Oklahoma; Left Waist Gunner Don Garrison from Illinois; Tail Gunner was Charles Clark, from Allan Park, Illinois.  Murphy flew with this crew for almost a year.
 
291 - Once together, the crew was transferred to Wendover Field, Utah, for training as a squadron and group, practice gunnery, bombing, formation flying, etc.  This training continued at many different airfields for four-five months.
 
300 – April, 1943, sent to Kearney, Nebraska, a staging field for crews headed overseas, where the crew received a new B-17 and were told they were being deployed to England to join the 8th Air Force.
 
324 – The B-17 assigned was meant to be the crew’s permanent plane, though things would not work out that way.
 
327 – The crew’s 1st mission, June, 1943, to St. Nazaire (sp.?) to bomb submarine pens.  The flak was heavy and their B-17 sustained heavy damage and was taken out of service for two to three weeks.  The next time the crew flew they had to use a different airplane.
 
348 – the crew knew they were going to England, but not where in England.  They flew from Kearney, Nebraska, to Selfridge Field, Detroit, Michigan, to Bangor, Main, to Goose Bay, Labrador, to Reykjavik, Iceland, to Prestwick, Scotland.  
 
362 – once in Prestwick, on May 31, 1943, the crew learned their permanent base at Thorpe Abbots, England, was not finished, so for a week they were sent to an RAF base at Podington.  
 
370 – Group moved to Thorpe Abbots on June 9, 1943, and continued practicing.  
 
378 – The crew named their B-17 “The Bastard’s Bungalow,” since they never knew where they were going next.  The name was painted on the plane.
 
407 – during the first mission most of the crew was excited, although nervous.  
 
414 – while the crew’s first bombing mission was to St. Nazaire, their first time over the continent came two days earlier, 06/26/1943, when they were sent to bomb a German aircraft engine overhaul facility at LeMans, France.  The weather was so bad over Northern France that the formation turned back.
 
426 – on 06/28/1944, the crew flew a bombing mission to St. Nazaire, encountering heavy flak damage that put their plane out of working condition for about two weeks, during which the crew flew other aircraft.
 
434 – Murphy flew 20 successful mission, and was shot down on his 21st mission.  The two most dramatic missions he flew were as follows….  In Late July, to Hamburg, to participate in the heavy bombing of that city.  August 17, 1943, part of the task force of the 3rd Air Division, to Regensburg, Ger, to bomb an aircraft factory, after which they turned and flew over Italy and landed in North Africa.  The 9th Bomb Group lost nine airplanes, half the strength that took off.
 
455 – on the Regensburg mission, the enemy fighters were much more deadly than the flak.  Fighters sustained their attack for a full hour that day.  The 8th AAF split its forces that day, half going to Regensburg and half to Schweinfurt.  Between the two taskforces 60 bombers were lost, out of less than 300 flying.
 
474 – Murphy found the destruction in the air around him to be unbelievable.  There was no friendly fighter escorts for the bombers.  The sight was very frightening, with the fighters attacking head-on.
 
494 – upon landing in North Africa, Murphy was very thankful to have made it.  It turned out that their airplane was badly damaged enough that they could not fly it back to England.  They all recognized that luck, skill, and bravery had little to do with it – all one could do was hope to not be next.  
 
515 – the Air Transport Command picked up the crew and flew them to Marrakech, Morocco, where they stayed for three of four days, then flew back to England.  In Marrakech, the crew went to a famous town square, with jugglers and fortune tellers.
 
531 – the crew resumed flying in England, with 14 missions to go.  They flew many missions in September, including Kassel.  
 
540 – In October Murphy had 17 or 18 missions, and flew to Emden on Oct. 4th.  The crew participated in Black Week from Oct. 4th – 8th.  
 
550 – Saturday, Oct. 9th, 1943, the crew flew a mission to Marienburg, Germany, 200 miles east of Berlin, where the primary factor for the production of the German FW190 Fighter aircraft was located.  Murphy was lead navigator for the formation that day, and flew with Col. Harding, the group’s CO.  The mission took 12 hours.  This mission was largely successful, as the Germans had not placed many defensive positions there because it was so far into German territory.  The bombers dropped from 12,000 feet that day.  
 
572 – Upon returning to Thorpe Abbots, Col. Harding was told the group would fly again the next day, Oct. 10th, 1943, to Munster, Germany.
 
579 – Oct 10th, 1943, the bomb group flew again.  Out of the thirteen bombers sent up by the 100th Bomb Group, twelve were shot down.  Rosie Rosenthal was the pilot of the only airplane that returned to England.  Murphy was shot down that day.  
 
590 – 25 of the 46 airplanes sent in to Munster that day by the 100th Bomb Group, 95th BG, and 390th BG were shot down in ten minutes.  The groups shot down 30 German fighters.  The 8th AAF was sent again on a maximum effort mission to Schweinfurt the following week, at which time they lost 60 airplanes.
 
600 – As the formation approached Munster they were under heavy flak from 105mm rail-road mounted anti-aircraft guns that were near the target more out of sheer luck than planning by the Germans, between the IP and the city.  
 
613 – Murphy counted between 65 and 70 German fighters waiting for the bombers to pass through the flak, after which they attacked head on.  
 
629 – Having dropped their bombs on the city (which was the target), Murphy’s plane began a sweeping left turn to head to the rally point.  At that point ME 109s attacked the aircraft from behind, killing the tail gunner and starting two fires in the aircraft, one in the radio room and one in the number three engine.  The fires were out of control, forcing the crew to abandon the airplane.  Murphy was firing a machine gun in the nose of the airplane when a canon shell went off behind him, knocking him down and spraying him with shrapnel.  While wondering what had happened, the copilot came from the flight deck and motioned to Murphy to follow him and promptly jumped out of the plane.  Murphy followed.  
 
663 – it took Murphy upwards of 20 minutes to hit the ground, during which time he was checked out by an ME 109
 
674 – coming down, 20 miles NE of Munster, Murphy could see people running to where he would land.  Murphy sprained his ankle badly upon landing, and had trouble getting out of his parachute.  While he struggled, three German farmers approached him.  One spoke, asking “Deutsch?”  When Murphy answered American, they backed off until they saw he was wounded.  As the farmers escorted him to a nearby farmhouse, a woman told Murphy in perfect English “for you the war is over.”  She asked if he was hurt, and they took him into the farmhouse.  Two women brought water and allowed Murphy to clean himself.  
 
708 – By the time Murphy had cleaned himself up a local policeman showed up with a gun and took Murphy.  Murphy was not frightened, but thankful that he had landed alive.
 
715 – while the Germans were not friendly, and yelled at Murphy in German, they did not physically abuse him.  Murphy walked with the policeman down a road, having trouble with his sprained ankle and bleeding ankle, when a large German touring car drove past with two Homeguards in it, 40-50 years old.  Sitting in the backseat of the car was Charlie Cruikshank, Murphy’s pilot.  They picked up Murphy and then drove to a police station.
 
END OF TAPE ONE
 
TAPE TWO
 
015 – Murphy was first taken to the small town of Kattenvenne, where the Germans were collecting prisoners.  After about 15-20 airmen had been collected, they drove them to Munster-Handorf airbase, which had a brig-type building.  Eventually as many as fifty American airmen were collected there with Murphy.  
 
047 – While talking with a young man from the 390th BG, Sean Wanum?, who was the son of the American ambassador to England.  
 
061 – While at the airbase Murphy received medical attention.  
 
070 – the next day the prisoners were sent on a train to Frankfurt, where the Germans had an interrogation center set up called Dulag-luft.  Murphy was placed in solitary confinement (6’x8’ room).  The prisoners’ shoes and flight jackets were taken.  
 
087 – Murphy was there for 5-6 days and was interrogated 3-4 times.
 
099 – Murphy’s shoes were returned and he was sent to Stalag-luft III.  
 
113 – Murphy was placed in the South Compound at Stalag-luft III, which had just been opened.  He was surprised to see the newness of the complex.  The barracks and buildings were austere but adequate.  Rooms were designed to hold twelve men, but before long the rooms were overcrowded.  South Compound was intended to hold 1200 men, though eventually there were over 2000 men there.  
 
139 – for the first year Murphy was a POW, though they never received clothes or adequate German rations, the POWs were allowed and did receive Red Cross Packages.  However, everything canned was punctured.
 
158 – during the first year Murphy lost only 10-15 pounds.  Only towards the end of 1944 did Murphy begin to lose much weight.  Also, they were overcrowded and not given enough coal.  
 
180 – to keep up with the news, the POWs could hear German news over loudspeakers and receive German newspapers.
 
207 – the real, reliable news, however, the prisoners got through a clandestine radio they nicknamed “the Canary.”  The radios would occasionally be disassembled and moved to another location.  Men would memorize the BBC newsbroadcasts and travel from barracks to barracks telling it.  
 
232 – Murphy received a journal from the Red Cross, but did not keep his during the evacuation.  
 
237 – Murphy passed time by playing in the POW band in the camp.  He had played clarinet and saxophone at Emory, and did the same in the camp.
 
267 – the POWs built their own theatre, and had a glee club and would perform concerts and plays there.  The Germans supplied most of the basic materials for the theatre, and the POWs built it.  
 
275 – Murphy speaks of the wide variety of skills that were found among the POWs in Stalag-Luft III.  The camp was full of officers, mainly college graduates, with skills ranging from electricians to engineers to architects, etc.  When the POWs began to dig tunnels, they had mining engineers from Colorado to supervise.  
 
285 – the POWs once put on a Latin American show.  Under the Geneva Conventions, the POWs were supposed to be paid just like the German Officers.  The Germans kept an account book, and would credit the accounts.  The Germans would allow the POWs to acquire materials for costumes with their credits.  At their Latin American show, the band played latin music and one of the POWs dressed as Carmen Miranda and sang and danced.
 
309 – Packages from home were allowed, though the government was very strict about what and how often packages could be sent.  Many books were restricted, anything political was restricted.  Mail was supposedly unlimited, though it did not work out.  The POWs were allowed to send 1 letter and 3 postcards a month.
 
330 – Mail was slow.  Murphy was captured in Oct, 1943, and received his first letter from home in March of 1944.  In June 1944 Murphy received a letter his mother wrote him on Christmas 1943.  
 
347 – Murphy’s parents received word that he was a POW two weeks after he was shot down, when they were sent a MIA telegram by the government.  
 
371 – Life at Stalag-luft III was ‘okay’ from Oct. 1943 till about Oct. 1944, as they were not abused, though clothing, housing, and food were inadequate.  The prisoners also lacked sufficient fuel for heating.  
 
386 – through the winter of 1944 conditions slowly worsened, until January 27, 1945, when the POWs were force evacuated to flee the advancing Russian Armies.  
 
397 – given only an hour to prepare for the evacuation, the POWs frantically attempted to prepare.  Murphy aimed for things he could reasonably carry and that would keep him warm.  
 
407 – the POWs set out, marching all night till five in the morning, with a few minutes of rest at every hour.  At five a.m., they were given an hour’s break, though they were kept outside.  They then set out to march till late that afternoon.  By that time people began to drop off, drop out.  
 
424 – The POWs came to a town where there was an abandoned factory, and Colonel Goodrich, the senior American officer, told the Germans the POWs wouldn’t travel anymore.  The Germans placed the POWs in the factory.  They were there that night, and although the Germans wanted to move again the next morning, Goodrich’s intervention won them another day of rest.  The next night they marched all night, and all the next day.
 
441 – eventually the group reached Sprenburg, where they were taken to a railroad stop.  65-70 men were crowded into each boxcar, which had been designed to hold 40 men.  
 
446 – locked in, the POWs road for the next two days and three nights, ending at Mooseburg, Stalag-Luft VIIA.
 
459 – Upon arriving at Mooseburg, the sight of Stalag VIIA was very depressing.  Ground was covered with snow, building were old hovels, and as the Germans opened the gate a horse-drawn cart drove by with dead airmen on it.  
 
472 – The camp was overcrowded, featured POWs from every prison camp in German.  Designed to hold 10-12,000, there wound up being over 100,000 prisoners there.  Red Cross Parcels were no longer being issued, only German bread and occasionally German soup.  Buildings were infested with fleas, bedbugs, and lice.  The POWs were there for about three months.
 
486 – While at Mooseburg, especially in April, the POWs could see P-51s flying over the camp occasionally, as well as large formations of bombers, a “spectacular” sight.
 
506 – The POWs were not surprised at the large numbers of bombers, partially because of the influx of new prisoners who told of the turning tide of the war.
 
514 – there were no activities for the POWs to occupy their time with at Mooseburg.  No facilities, no ability to write, etc.  Rooms of every size were crowded wall to wall.  The only activity was to wait for the war to end.
 
522 – The 14th armored division came into the vicinity of Mooseburg on the night of April 28th.  The senior British and American officers, together with the Red Cross representative and the commandant of the Prison Camp, went out and met the allies under a truce flag.  
 
538 – The Germans wanted to negotiate the surrender of the camp, but the American forces nearby demanded the unconditional surrender of the camp by 9 a.m. the following morning (April 29th) or the Americans would attack.  The German Area Commander refused.  The next day the Americans did begin to attack.  As the POWs listened it dawned on them what was going on.  Eventually the gun battle nearby died down as the Germans retreated, and two Sherman tanks came up and knocked down the front gate of the prison camp.  
 
553 – Murphy stayed near to the camp, though he viewed the surrounding area with some interest.  After a day or two an American army unit showed up with additional food.  Patton came by for a day.  Finally, after about a week, the Americans came and deloused the POWs, taking them by truck to an airfield near Regensburg, where they were flown to Liege, Belgium, then taken by train to Camp Lucky Strike near LeHavre, France.  
 
575 – Murphy stayed at Camp Lucky Strike for a few days, since he had a touch of pneumonia, and received penicillin, which he had never heard of.  He was then put on a hospital ship, which stopped at South Hampton, England, to take on more patients, then sailed for the U.S. in a thirty ship convoy.  It took 12 days to cross the ocean, and they landed at the Boston 5th Pier.  Taken to camp Myles Standish in Taunton, Massachusetts, and finally to Fort McPherson in Atlanta.
 
592 – upon arriving at Fort McPherson, Murphy called his parents, whom he hadn’t heard from since September, 1944, and it was now June, 1945.  His mother answered and began crying.  His parents came and picked him up and “that was it.”
 
607 – Murphy served in the Army because Japan had maliciously and underhandedly attacked the United States, and felt an obligation and desire to go and fight back.  
 
620 – Murphy reveals why the 100th Bomb Group is called “The Bloody Hundredth.”  One theory is that it originated from the many missions the 100th BG flew on which it took extremely heavy losses.  Freeman thought it was because word got around in England during the war that the 100th BG took very heavy losses.  Murphy and Freeman deny that the 100th BG took such heavy losses because of inept leadership or a lack of discipline.  
 
675 – one story that became legendary was that at Regensburg a pilot with a damaged airplane turned to go home, and as the Germans attacked the pilot, knowing he wouldn’t make it home, lowered his wheels in a sign of surrender.  When the German fighters came in to escort them to the ground, the gunners on the plane opened fire and shot down several of the Germans.  Supposedly this story got around in the German Air Force, and after that the Fighter pilots looked especially hard for planes from the 100th BG.  Murphy, in Germany during the 1980s, talked to many German fighter pilots about this story, all of whom denied the veracity of this story.  
 
698 – Murphy returned to Emory on the GI Bill, and majored in Business with a minor in Science.  
 
705 – Murphy ends the interview with a note on the necessity of having young people to carry on the 100th BG Association, and other such associations.  He fears that without some central place to preserve the 8th AAF’s history it would be lost.  He believes that this museum will serve that function, and the individual associations will increasingly go away.  

KIA / MIA / EVA / INT INFORMATION:

TARGET: Munster DATE: 1943-10-10  
AIRCRAFT: "Aw R Go" (42-30725) CAUSE: EAC - EXP  

BURIAL INFORMATION

PLOT: ROW:  
GRAVE: CEMETERY:  

PHOTOS:

Frank Murphy and other members of the Cruikshank crew in North Africa, following the Regensburg mission (Photo courtesy of the McClelland Family)

Article on Frank Murphy (from the collection of Bucky Elton).

Frank Murphy at Thorpe Abbotts in 1983 (photo courtesy of Richard Gibson)

Liberated POW's preparing to depart Luft Stalag VIIA for Camp Lucky Strike on May 10, 1945.  Frank D, Murphy standing third from the left with white drawstring over shoulder.  (Henry Keller Collection)

 Frank D. Murphy and John C. Egan photographed at the Mamounia Hotel, Marrakesh, Morocco 20 Aug 1943. (100th Photo Archives) 

 Officers from Crew #31 at Wendover Field, Utah in December 1942. From left C. Maertz, Charlie B. Cruikshank (Crankshaft to the 100th), Anthony H. Gaspar, and Frank D. Murphy. Detailed Information (100th Photo Archives) 

 The Charles B. Cruikshank crew in Telergua, Algeria, 17 Aug 1943. Crew #31 just after landing. L-R A. August H. Gaspar, Charles A. Clark, James M. Johnson, Robert Bixler, Frank D. Murphy, Donald B. Garrison, Leonard R. Weeks, Orlando E. Vincenti. The pilot Charles B. Cruikshank is kneeling. Charles Clark and Orlando Vincenti were to be killed almost two month later at Munster (10 Oct 1943) Detailed Information (100th Photo Archives) 

 Officers of Crew #31 at Mamounia Hotel, Marrakesh, Morrocco. Standing left to right; Augie Gaspar, Charlie Cruikshank, Frank Murphy and Glenn Graham, the co-pilot kneeling. Detailed Information (100th Photo Archives) 

 From left; James M. Johnson, Donald B. Garrison, Augie Gaspar, Frank D. Murphy, and Glenn E. Graham Detailed Information (100th Photo Archives) 

 Charles B. Cruikshank crew taken at Gowen Field, Idaho in Novermber 1942. Standing (Left to Right); Charles Mertz, August H. "Augie" Gaspar, Frank D. Murphy and Charles B. Cruikshank. Kneeling; Orlando E. Vincenti, Charles A. Clark, Robert L. Bixler, Robert D. Lepper, S/Sgt Pepper and James M. Johnson. Detailed Information Photo courtesy of Frank D. Murphy John Brady Crew in North Africa after the Regensburg Mission 17 Aug 1943 Detailed Information (100th Photo Archives) Four 100th B-17s over the Alps, top "Cowboy" Roane in "LADEN MAIDEN," 2nd from top (smaller image) Henry Henington in "HORNY," center Bob Wolff in "WOLF PACK, lower "Bucky" Egan and "Crankshaft" Cruikshank in "MUGWUMP" Detailed Information (100th Photo Archives) 

 Charles B. Cruikshank crew wearing Fezzes and pith helmets from North Africa. This is a public relations photograph made at Thorpe Abbotts some weeks after the Regensburg mission. John Egan is shown kneeling wearing his white flight jacket, Cruikshank is on the extreme right,  kneeling on the left,with a dagger in his pocket is Frank Murphy. This photograph appeared in Stars and Stripes. Detailed Information (100th Photo Archives) 

 On return from Regensburg rain, Cruikshank crew being interviewed by Gladwyn Hill of AP and Samuel Goldstein, Life and AP Photographer. (100th Photo Archives) 

Stars and Stripes article on Regensburg.  

Stars and Stipes article Part II on Regensburg with Cruikshank Crew and John Egan. 

In the Front Row you have Lt Woodward Crew, Frank Murphy, Charles Cruikshank Major John Egan (CO 418thth BS)  Alvin Barker (351st operations officer) , Eve Blakely, James Douglas, 

L-R: Ernest Warsaw NAV (Capt Knox Crew), Frank Murphy, NAV (Lt Cruickshank Crew)and David Solomon NAV ( LT  ERNEST A. "DOC" KIESSLING Crew).  Courtesy of Virginia Solomon  

John D. Brady Crew, also identified as Crew 32. Standing (left to right); Joseph E. Hafer, James A. McCusker, Adolph Blum, George J. Petrohelos, Roland D. Gangwer and Harold E. Clanton. Kneeling; John L. Hoerr, John D. Brady, Howard B. "Hambone" Hamilton and Frank D. Murphy (fill in Navigator from Capt Cruikshank Crew) . Detailed Information (100th Photo Archives)

 

SERVED IN:

Crew 1

ID: 3770